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 Temat postu: Of populations in poorly-studied areas: refs from may,2013
PostWysłany: 31 Sie 2023, 15:31 
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circumstantial publication
///paradigm of recondities, Central Asian rarities, island pests,protocols for difficult-to-explore territories and more avowals///
Tomasz Q. Pietrzak

“Here, I present my concerns into zoological matters ” Quatl

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It is a crucial time, which has not yet been. Moreover there are other “times” not yet mentioned here. Population ecological investigations with many ways based on field studies are current and in particular one of the further natural history themes, as these that were not previously developed until late of nineteen century. There are a few names about issue and are divided into forgetfulness populations and those of nowhere. Recondite population investigations is issue behind-borders animal ecology studies such as cryptozoology is behind-border investigation method into zoology initiated in middle of XX century by extraordinary zoologists as well as naturalists and used currently by some of them. A truly it is now continuation of great explorations of former authorities. Finally, we concluded both ecological and zoological investigations are goes forward together. For better resolving, cryptozoologists there are need to cooperate with ecologists and other multi-science-renowed activities for diversities assessments. Unknown animals is represent by populations, hence for classified new species population in given range must be documented. Unusual specimens are usually not new species, at first, specimens must be confirmed elsewhere in area. Non-penetrating and unrecognized populations are here known as “recondites”, especially once living in pristine or disturbed habitats. It is not such as we supposed, that only wide-range diversity is domain of fossil fauna, but extant kinds of most vertebrates, such as meager fishes or mammals posses forgotten diversity. Outline of essays of such approach under work are animals endangered or poorly understood. Border between population being scientific recognized and those known as recondite are not clearly explicit. But frames exist in ecology of recondite populations and it is presented here in this view. Recondite populations are a group of populations not yet identified by scientific visions. As I previously supposed yet recognized equal enigmatic or hidden. Recondite rooms onto human-induced visions are identified step-by-step via severely observing empiric populations living in field. Previously, duffer and magnificent zoologist consisted on field-based explorations in deep and remote areas, where no human existed or primitive tribes living. These inspiring potential investigations for populations are schemes for further explorations.

Some animals despite their common widespread are not so clearly understood. Many avian species being very known in local cultures and was studied for many years, despite that, they are still unfamiliar. Many aspect of nature life remain unexamined. Interaction with human remain once of most important, especially for human populations. Habitat selection of selected species or foraging behaviors are key concepts in future investigations. Population size or density are important parameters not only controversial or threatened species, but elusive or abundant ones. Ecologically-important species posses current positions as an iconic in ecological patterns. Among animals are man-eaters, livestock gourmets and many more are game with no sense. Predators are controversial animals strongly affected local stakeholders. There are also no doubt of their significance in current wildlife management. There are likewise many populations rare and endangered. Much of them remain unexplored and enigmatic, especially in those little know species. But there are many little known populations of quite well-known species. The obscures essays is devoted for long-term existence of human and all the wildlife, as it is extant prior to nowadays. It is very important to know, there are only one word to elucidate that populations are the most important structure in ecological analysis.

Cryptozoology as kind of direct or indirect peculiar investigation to natural history should be based first of all on unrecognized and unstudied populations being new units of different species, such as conspicuous rodents or terrestrial turtles. Ecological-based implications in wildlife studies is ways to studied populations of many vertebrates. Some species are difficult to investigate in the field. Thus important actions on fauna estimations are determining presence of given species in the area for conducting further works. There are some methods in determining presence of elusive species. Methods, such as camera trapping or pitfall traps are one of the common methods in determining species in unstudied areas and could be used also in detection of rare or elusive in given habitats. These methods provide not only presence of species but also estimate their habitat use or activity patterns. Noninvasive methods was used in studied of ungulates, lizards or even some of invertebrates. Mammals living in arid zones are night-activity creatures depends on death and live maneuvers. Many of these animals was little studied before, including those lizards or rodents, forms of different vertebrate groups. Important questions is about their habitat use, energetic management, food habits or activity but principal purposes is filling the gap of distribution and status in remote areas, where no records was before. Mythical animals are local creatures known by natives. Around the globe there are plenty of odd-looking and rare creatures. For zoology important are those creatures represent valid species. Few of them are unrecognized species or new one, but many more are local variations both shape and names.

Herpetologists or mammal researchers could be involved with ecological as well as cryptozoological investigations with ecology-based survey and confirm the status and records of rare and elusive animals in a little-studied areas. Very important is knowledge about elusive populations of known species. Some populations of best known fishes species are insufficiently ecological investigated. Hence, our knowledge about their adaptations in environment, ecology patterns is unknown, there are no in-dept studies population. This population posses questions for researchers and biologists. It is one of the current issue in ecological explanations. Mammals and fishes could be example of that procedure as the wide-range species was little studied in field and mosaic areas or unstudied areas. Although species was studies in forest and protected areas in some areas. Meanwhile in far regions investigations was absent. Thus, there was many of the questions, because of results of many problems and coexistence. We do not discern, if one population share similar behavioral or ecological patterns to other populations of the species living in similar habitat conditions elsewhere. Perhaps there aren't the same habitats and conditions anywhere. Sightings procedure of rare terrestrial vertebrates should be divided into three levels. First one. Ethnical survey (interviews with locals, hunters). Following: observations of traces and signs of given species. Finally, direct evidence of species using e.g. photographic evidence. We do not know, where they live, and yet we know they exist. It is almost known that each larger animals was studies before, but none of them in rural areas in such regions as in south of Dzhugdzhur Mountains or northern Vojvodina. The richness or number of species is the highest in tropical areas. Sub-saharan Africa including savannahs and rainforest, or Southeast Asia are areas where many species occur and remain poorly recognized with no photos or captured animals alive. There live many tropical birds and other curio vertebrates. In temperate climate areas species diversity is less with broader distribution. Fauna of tropics and subtropics areas are less abundant with smaller population sizes than animals of northern regions. Finally, populations occupied tropics as well as all given species was detected more rarer then in northern regions, because of difficult-to-explore areas being large forest complex, swamps, high-grass areas etc. Although detectability at local scale is probably similar in those both regions. In tropical and subtropical regions animals posses smaller distribution range and high species diversity.

In nowadays there are no studies of wildlife and environments in areas, where was studies once like here, where introduced pests possess threats for native animals, especially those living on islands. These animals sometimes are invaders or aliens in native areas. Starbuck and Malden Islands are coral atolls located in Micronesia in central Pacific. The islands are dry, low, ground is located on coral limestone. Vegetation of islands are extremely limited. The islands represents local fifteen nesting seabirds. Most dangerous pest inhabit by the islands is Polynesian rats Rattus exulants affect greatly local populations and causes dependently unnatural environmental changes. Although there are no investigations devoted for revealing this situations. I think it should be remain unresolved. What is worse than yon example, there are no even a cursory investigations ongoing and there are no great hope to will start in close future in areas, where populations was not studied anytime before. It is because of their elusive behaviors and difficult to study via theirs activity. Does not help in that current political conflicts and local riots in proposed study areas. It is really great challenge to study animalium, especially in most unfriendly places. Dry and hot savannahs of western Africa in e.g. Guinea Bissau is permanently habitat for large terrestrial mammals, such as savanna buffalo Syncerus caffer brachyceros that are restricted to protected areas. Fosse aux Lion National Park are inhabited by monkeys and antelopes in small numbers. Moist savannas are on the south near forests edges, where persist shadow’ animals. Cultural significance of that region was inspired by artists and ethnographers. Endemic reptiles and amphibians occupied sure of these areas.

There are someone people that searching odd lands and species that inhabits it. We do not see them as a species because it comes out of nowhere. So who are them, if I mentioned. It is a different category than the population on the edge of oblivion. In contrast to the population on the verge of oblivion no one never knew from scientific guild. Investigation initiative should be initiated for rare and endemic animals being sample of that verge of oblivion or not yet evaluated. That is sample of that kind. Ungulate or reptile hunting is method for reduction abundant species, but we are not sure if this work anywhere correctly. Meanwhile it is also way for meat resource for a primitive-living people and they can know species and their populations being recondite. Some of the locals animals are treated as historical demonic and thus these creatures are permanently not known what is natural by white man for those people althought rare is it part of wild creature base. There is in central America valuable that reduction animal densities help persist health populations. Honduras is inhabit by Collared Peccary Pecari tajacu and Baird's Tapir Tapirus bairdii one of the important source for tribes. Populations of that species are isolated in hot spots and are named as subspecies or local forms. We go further, it is almost known that some other such creatures not listed here in scientific catalogue are over here and hunted by some primitive peoples. These animal as well as primitive human populations, actually primary are populations of nowhere. Reptiles such as American crocodile Crocodile americana are threatened by poaching can be distinct by isolation in remote regions of the country. Many snakes in that country belonging to Micrurus genus and known as coral snakes, especially poisoned one somewhere here are cryptids. Some populations of known species are host as cryptic diversity, and that cryptic samples within populations belonging definitely to different species similar to those only for living in congruous conditions. But we do not convinced, if there are more hidden larger and smalles populations of all, both other known or unknown species.

There are also places in Central Asia as an important element is the justification and conduct environmental analyzes for diversity and threats. These regions are differently explored. Attention is needed to the aspects of the natural and landscape steppes and forests alterations. Turgay Plateau are inhabited by Eurasian fauna and local endemics. Initial characterization studies on wild fauna is under undiagnosed veil. In Khabarovski Krai of Russia was studied population of Sakhalin sturgeon Acipenser mikadoi but no any studies was conducted on other local populations of wide-range water animals, including those endemic. No data on fauna and the lack of analysis landscapes are face of forgetfulness. Although tedious attempts of environmental research and species occurrence so frequent runs several groups of scientists. Ranges in western Siberia comprises diverse fauna. They live it to various species of birds and other animals such as crawling grouse Lagopus muta. More than 80% of the Turkmenia covered by the vast Karakum desert. Although, these are dry areas of low rainfall. Local ratels Mellivora capensis buecheri is larger and more massive than other counterparts and thus is face of local legends. It is probably different genetically. Once upon a time the scientists studied here caracal Caracal caracal. Endemic animals other lesser-known predators are under forget. Region host many birds of prey as well as waterbirds. Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus as common Eurasian bird takes the local endemics as populations in whole region. Foraging behavior explain the many troubling questions. Habitat affect the different behavioral and ecological traits. Observations of foraging of many Lacerta species at dawn or night existence patterns of wild boar Sus scrofa are splendid instants contributions to ecological assessments. Landscape features affect greatly habitat selection of mammals or amphibians but it shape also unsaid diversity of groups. For instance insectivore populations in Europe and elsewhere such as shrews Crocidura sp. or moles Talpa sp. are not fully understood it seemed as if. Theses animals are mysterious with cryptic diversity (molecular ecology) and there are cryptids or hidden animals (cryptozoology). Both groups represent first thing one population sensu lato. East and central Europe are inhabits by poorly-known species of reptiles which are increasingly rarer.

But there are also places, which are not conflicted or disturbed. Much of uncharted places are forgotten by people once and won't be further areas of fauna investigations. How many that places are over there? I could say so, dozens. History of queer animals moving on the ground of old Zaire provide shamanic insanity. Other investigations e.g. animal status in barren Djibuti was never considered. Small creatures, including rare amphibians are no records yet from these areas. Cryptozoological ways not as science, but as kind of investigation should be linked with tropical fauna inhabits Deserts and jungles are inhabits by recently forbidden carnivore fauna. Juruena National Park is inhabits by jaguars giant otters Pteronura brasiliensis and Harpy eagles Harpia harpyja. Although within range area, there are no any records of rarest predators, especially enigmatic ones. Although high mammalian carnivore diversity there was no reports for theirs distribution or population status in northern region of Angola. For many years Angola was place for domestic war, and was impossible for any wildlife studies. Status and species diversity of carnivores in Cabinda Province was no previously supported. More on the south is located of quite cool and rainfall-optimized Bié Plateau, where sighthings of African striped weasel Poecilogale albinucha was occurred but no records was published.

A few year ago was discovered Indonesian coelacanth, Latimeria menadoensis and the species is only little related to other coelacanths. It is manifest population but there are no doubt there in the region is isolation favour of other fishes species gathered in one population. There are other endemic fishes, such as genus Lagusia. Parsazen pacifucus is wide-range species but there are no specific information on species around the range areas. Rare fishes communities including those freshwater in tropical areas, such as where Arapaima gigas existed or elsewhere in tropics hidden enormous diversity which can be difficult to detected. In south Pacific there are some communities of starfishes, including the giant one and other invertebrates groups. One of them are octopuses where diversity is immense, including unknown populations of known species. Enteroctopus megalocyathus is one of selections.

Vintage land, which after all does not exist in reality. Although, this is an area representing a most fragmentary worlds. Faunistic observations of species including montuosa or in depths areas was not yet recorded or identified from that territories. Not yet defined field surveys or field trips was arranged is drawn. New experiences will be conducted further. Are there any way to determine presence or absence of hidden populations? Are noninvasive methods can evaluate patterns in abundance of some common or rare species? Some of the issues will be developed here for further explorations. Long-term developing strategy for studies and monitoring of mammals and fishes in various study areas as a new and uncanny intricate entities. For future purposes most valuable activity are camera trapping, tracking, scat counting, visual observations and interview with locals on fauna in these areas. It is sense to be difficult to approach these plan. It will be damned hard to explore some areas. But there is no other way to achieved that problem.

This new theory is supported by assumptions in the field of ecology deployments and hidden species hypothesis. There are gaps in the distributions not only in vertebrates. It is important to determine the ecology of common and rare species of fish, mammal and bird communities in countries such as Albania or elsewhere e.g. Myanmar. These are countries, where were no so-called long-term studies on the rare or even common wildlife. How many there are mysteries? Knowledge situation of ungulates or large birds are not presented clearly in this area. Conservation studies on mammalians in Burkina Faso is slowly developing. Medium-sized animals in poorly inventory countries are virtually hidded and has not been studied in a standard way but recently there are some initiatives. There is no wonder too, only few data exist on that ambiguous animals. Is there any hope for a change of the situation? Zoological guild fellowship between many enthusiasts and practitioner researchers, where wildlife is forgotten should be initiated, as well initiatives for developing countries for better coexistence between people and vertebrates, and for return of natural condition of human communities in these territories. For endure sure and correct notification there are needed better construction for balanced persistence.

Some campaigns aims are collect enough support to census of wildlife. In these countries are lacks up-to-date data on population status of some species, hence no any conservation initiatives for animals was established. Monitoring surveys of elusive mammals and amphibians in selected areas of following countries. Some of the regions would be excluded due to current situation. Practical goals of independent and non-profit self-managed explorations is to develop rapid monitoring system meets globally recognized field study requirements for little-studied or rare vertebrates and their populations in poorly-studied areas. More and more studies could be carried out on species and habitat being forgotten. Scientific-based analysis here will be based on theriofauna and their habitat but also on reptiles, avifauna, invertebrates and landscape components. Results, except science-based data will have local application for further animal-human coexistence as well for communities thrive. Which kind of first-science based monitoring for wildlife persistence in that regions is needed? There are no answers. Although it is important areas for large animals, there are weak approach for smaller species and other charismatic groups. None of them are fully studied or protected. Selected countries in three various conditions for pilot projects is also of nowhere. Developing basal population monitoring of key groups of wildlife as inventory in poorly-studied areas such as within Eurasia or Africa. Here I can mentioned these works will be hard to explore and be damned to long-term achieving.

Additional literature:

¤Yu, J. and F. S. Dobson. 2000. Seven Forms of Rarity in Mammals. Journal of Biogeography 27:131-139
¤Heuvelmans, B. 1958. On the Track of Unknown Animals. London: Hart-Davis
¤Bille, M. Shadow of existence: Discoveries and Speculations in Zoology. Hancock House
¤Kunin, W. E., Gaston, K. J. 1993. The biology of rarity: Patterns, causes and consequences. Trends in Ecology & evolution. 8: 298–301
¤Raphael, M.G., Molina, R. (eds) 2007, Conservation of Rare or Little-known Species: biological, social, and economic considerations. Island Press, Covelo, CA, USA??? (nie wiadomo czy zostanie zawarte)
¤Thompson, W.L. 2004. (ed), Sampling Rare or Elusive Species. Island Press, Washington, D.C

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